Plastically simplified forms abandoning detail, realistic body masses with accurate proportions and adoption of French innovations were characteristic of works by members of the art group Neodvisni (the Independents), founded in 1937. In addition to brother Boris Kalin and Frančišek Smerdu, the sculpture section of the Independents included Zdenko Kalin. All three were the first appointed professors at the newly founded Ljubljana Academy of Fine Arts.
Zdenko Kalin was fascinated by the work of Aristide Maillol, a master of female nudes. Kalin’s Female Nude, a classical and volumetric sculpture with a Maillol-inspired sensibility, represents a link to the pre-war sculpture of plastic realism, which strives for formal purity by reducing detail. The full-figured nude with hands folded behind her back combines traditional and Modernist elements. The vibrant and mature female body stands in a relaxed posture, its surface is smoothed and the face individualised.
The identical cast of the sculpture in front of the Museum of Modern Art in Ljubljana is more often mentioned in the literature.